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Apel­li­do and Re­peal

The Span­ish apel­li­do, for “last name” (“sur­name” to the Brits) has a cousin in the Eng­lish re­peal and ap­peal.

All of these come from the Latin ap­pel­lare, mean­ing, “to call.”

The Span­ish makes sense: your last name is which tribe the world calls you by!

The Eng­lish ap­peal is, in­deed, when you call for a high­er au­thor­i­ty for help. And re­peal is when you call back, push back to those who tried to do some­thing to you.

The p‑l map­ping is con­sis­tent amongst all the vari­a­tions, with slight changes in spelling (sin­gle l vs dou­ble l, for ex­am­ple).

Mar­chi­tar and Morn­ing

Mar­chi­tar (Span­ish for “to fade; to with­er”) comes from the Latin marcere (“to de­cay, with­er”) which it­self comes from the an­cient Pro­to-In­do-Eu­ro­pean root merk which al­so means the same, “to de­cay, with­er.”

From the Pro­to-In­do-Eu­ro­pean root merk, we get the Eng­lish… morn­ing (via Old Ger­man — just re­mem­ber the Ger­man mor­gen!).

Morn­ing, af­ter all, is just the end of the de­cay of the moon!

The m‑r root is clear­ly vis­i­ble in both!

Jarabe — Syrup

Syrup jarabe english spanish

The Span­ish for syrup, jarabe, comes from the same root as the Eng­lish: the Persian/Arabic sharab, which means “a drink, or wine”.

The dras­ti­cal­ly dif­fer­ent (at least su­per­fi­cial­ly) words are ex­plained by the sh- and re­lat­ed (such as, sy- ) sounds chang­ing to the Ara­bic-sound­ing j- sound in Span­ish — but not Eng­lish.

Thus, the j‑r-b of jarabe maps to the sy-r‑p of syrup.

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Ceniza and In­cin­er­ate

Ceniza (Span­ish for “ash­es”) comes from the Latin ci­nis, mean­ing the same.

From the Latin root ci­nis, we get the Eng­lish… cin­der as well as in­cin­er­ate. That makes sense: these are ei­ther the cause or the re­sult of the process that caus­es ash­es!

The most in­ter­est­ing part is.… this al­so ex­plains why the Cin­derel­la fairy tale, in Span­ish, is called… Ceni­cien­ta!

We can see the c‑n root clear­ly in all these vari­a­tions.

Corazón and Heart

So, this is one of my per­son­al all-time fa­vorite et­y­molo­gies. Just sayin’.

The Span­ish for “heart,” corazón, and the Eng­lish heart it­self, both come from the same orig­i­nal root.

Huh? How? But they’re so dif­fer­ent!

Both come from the Pro­to-In­do-Eu­ro­pean *kerd-, mean­ing the same. The key to un­der­stand­ing this one is re­mem­ber­ing the pat­tern that the k- sounds from PIE tend­ed to re­main the same in Latin, but changed to the h- sound as it evolved in­to Ger­man and then Eng­lish. Take, for ex­am­ple, hun­dred/cen­tu­ry, for ex­am­ple.

Thus, the h‑r-t of heart maps to the c‑r-z of corazón.

From the same root is… courage. yup, that c‑r is the same c‑r. So courage is in­deed some­thing that comes from the heart.

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